RASHTRIYA SAM VIKAS YOJANA PROJECT

RSVY > PROFILE OF THE DISTRICT

3.0 PROFILE OF THE DISTRICT:
 
3.1.1 Historical BACKGROUND:

 
Lawngtlai District is one of the eight administrative Districts in Mizoram. The District was created on 11th November, 1998. Prior to 1998, Lawngtlai District was a part of undivided Chhimtuipui District comprising of Saiha and Lawngtlai Districts. The history of Lawngtlai District as a part of Mizoram dated back to the days of Chieftainship (Lal). Since time immemorial, before the British entered, their own chiefs form generation to another without any disturbance from any quarter ruled this virgin land. This state of affairs kept on continuing till the British appeared on the scene in the late 18th century. On 21st February, 1888, one Lai Chief Hausat Chinzah, Chief of the then Fungkah Village raided the Survey team and killed Lt.Stewart, two other Englishmen and one army personnel. Punitive action was taken by the British and in the process, Lawngtlai district came under the direct control of the British after the expedition of 1889 by the British.

For better and effective administration, the then Lushai hill was bifurcated into two districts such as The North and South Lushai Hills. The North Lushai Hills (it was then called) was placed under the administrative jurisdiction of the Chief Commissioner of Assam and the South Lushai Hills, which covered Lawngtlai District, was under Lt.Governor of Bengal. Prior to 1890, there was no regular administrative set-up as it is understood today. A few posts and forts have been established here and there to safeguard the interests of the British regime. Later on,for reason of better and more cohesive administration, the British merged the South Lushai hills with the North Lushai Hills into one district known as Lushai Hills District ,on 1st April, 1898,and was placed under the Superintendent of Assam.

After India attained independence in 1947, The Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council was created under the provision of the Sixth Schedule in 1952 for the purpose to preserve and protect the identities of the Lushais. The District continued to remain as one of the districts of Assam,which later was changed into Mizo District in 1954. Along with the creation of Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council in 1952, leaders of the Lai (it was then called Pawi), Mara (it was then called Lakher) and Chakma demanded a separate Autonomous District Councils as they felt they were distinct stock of tribes. Accordingly, both the Governments of India and Assam having taken all aspects of the political, social and economic lives of the Lai,Mara and Chakma into consideration ultimately created in April 1953,a separate Autonomous Regional Council known as The Pawi-Lakher Autonomous Regional Council under the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India. The two Councils continued their existence side by side till the creation of the Union territory of Mizoram in 1972, under the North –Eastern Areas Reorganization Act of 1971. Eventually the Mizo Autonomous District Council was abolished and the erstwhile Pawi-Lakher Regional Council was trifurcated into three Autonomous District Councils viz, Pawi, Lakher and Chakma Autonomous District Councils under the same Act.

During the sixties, sections of Mizo people were dissatisfied with the political administration of the Indian government on the region. The Mizo National Front (MNF) founded by Laldenga, which sought political segregation from the Indian Union turned rebellion in 1966 and MNF was declared unlawful and the region was categorized as ‘Disturbed Area’. The MNF, however, could not succeed in achieving their main goal and were compelled by circumstances to find agreement with the Indian Union under the framework of the Constitution. Mizoram Peace Accord was signed on 30th June, 1986. Later, on 7th August, 1986, the Constitution 53rd Amendment Bill and the State of Mizoram Bill was passed simultaneously and the declaration of ‘Disturbed Area’ was withdrawn. Consequently, Mizoram was conferred statehood on 20th February, 1987.

For administrative purpose, the state of Mizoram is divided into three districts of Aizawl, Lunglei and Chhimtuipui. Chhimtuipui District has an area of 3,957 sq. km. with its headquarter at Saiha and Lawngtlai and Chawngte as sub-divisions. Further, for the smooth functioning of developmental operations, the district is divided into four (4) rural development Blocks of Lawngtlai, Sangau (now in Saiha District), Tuipang (Now in Saiha District) and Chawngte. On the 11th November 1998 (Vide: Government of Mizoram notification No. A. 60011/21/95-GAD. Dated Aizawl, the 11th November) Lawngtlai district was created with its headquarter at Lawngtlai, Sub-division at Chawngte and two rural development Blocks at Lawngtlai and Chawngte.

3.1.2. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION AND AREA:
The District is located in the south-west part of Mizoram having international boundaries with Bangladesh in the west and Myanmar in the east. Lunglei and Saiha District bounded the district in the north and in the south respectively. Lawngtlai District covered an area of 1991.19 Sq. km and it lies between 92.30o – 93o E Longitudes and 21.58o – 22.60o N latitudes. The District headquarter –Lawngtlai is connected by National Highway No.54 and it is about 296 kms from Aizawl. Location of some of the prominent villages of the District from Aizawl and Lunglei is indicated in the table:
Table 3.1.2 Location of selected villages from Aizawl and Lunglei.
 

Sl no.

Name of the village

Distance (in km)

From Aizawl

From Lunglei

1

Lawngtlai

296

69

2

Chawngte

335

100

3

Thingkah

292

65

4

Paithar

318

91

5

Chawntlangpui

318

91

6

Sihtlangpui

320

93

7

Kawlchaw

327

100

8

Mampui

314

87

9

Ngengpui

336

109

10

Diltlang ‘S’

356

129

11

Hmunnuam

367

140

12

Bungtlang ‘S’

379

152

13

Sekulh

393

166

14

Kawnpui ‘s’

406

179

Source: Census of India 2001

Table 3.1.3(b) District-wise distribution of population, sex ratio, Decadal growth rate and density: 2001.

Sl no.

Particulars

Lawngtlai

Mizoram

India

1

Total population

73620

888573

1,02,64,43,540

Male

38776

459109

53,10,61,138

female

34844

429464

49,53,82,402

2

Sex ratio

898

935

933

3

Density (2001)

29

42

324

Source: Census of India 2001
 

3.1.4. SOCIO-CULTURAL BACKGROUND:
 
The main communities inhabiting Lawngtlai District are the Lais, Chakmas, Bawm, Pang, etc. There are famous cultural heritage among such tribes. In the eastern side of the district where Lai communities are the main inhabitants, Chawnglaizawn, Sarlamkai and Pawhlohtlawh are the main cultural dances. In Chakma occupied area of the district, there are various tribes of backward classes. In this area, the main religion is Buddhism whereas in the eastern side ie Lai occupied area; Christianity is prevailing as the major religion. The common languages speaks in the district are Lai, Chakma and various dialects of other backward tribes ie Pang, Bru, Bawm etc. These communities have different folk dances,habits and customs of their own. The common cultural dances of the Chakmas are Nua Jhumo Naach and Biju Naach.

The inhabitants of Lawngtlai District are very backward in various ways, the standard of living is very low and literacy percentage of the district is also the lowest amongst the eight districts in Mizoram.
 
3.1.5. CLIMATIC CONDITION:
 
Lawngtlai District has a pleasant climate .It is generally cool in summer and not very cold in winter. In winter the temperatures varies from 8 degree Celsius to 24 degree Celsius and in summer, it is between 18 degree Celsius and 32 degree Celsius. The western part of the district is lower in elevation compare to the eastern part, and hence it experiences a little warmer climate than the eastern part. Relative humidity is highest during the south-west monsoon when they are about 85%. The District is under the direct influence of South-West Monsoon and heavy precipitation is usually received during the months from May up to September every year. The average annual rainfall is about 2558mm. The hottest period starts from the month of March up to August every year. During the rainy season, it is usually heavily clouded. There is an increase of cloudiness from March onwards. A clear and cool weather starts appearing from the month of September up to January the next year.

Table 3.1.5 Monthly Average Rainfall of Lawngtlai District (1986-02):

Sl no

Month

Rainfall(mm)

1

January

8

2

February

27

3

March

67

4

April

123

5

May

320

6

June

437

7

July

500

8

August

408

9

September

362

10

October

231

11

November

66

12

December

9

13

Total

2558 mm


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Directorate of Agriculture and Minor Irrigation.
Government of Mizoram

3.1.6. ADMINISTRATIVE SETUP:
 
3.1.6 (A) Administrative set up of The District Councils:
In comparison with other districts in Mizoram, Lawngtlai district has uniqueness and peculiarity. At present, there are two Autonomous District Councils within the district viz. The Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) and The Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) functioning parallel with the District Administration machinery headed by Office of the Deputy Commissioner of Lawngtlai District with its headquarter at Lawngtlai. The councils have their Headquarters at Lawngtlai and Kamalanagar respectively.

The Pawi-Lakher Regional Council set up in 1953 under the provisions of Article 244(2) read with the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India was divided into three regional councils viz.,Pawi,Lakher and Chakma by a notification issued by the Government on 2 April,1972.In terms of the provisions of paragraph 20B of the Sixth Schedule ,Pawi regional Council along with Chakma Regional council was elevated to the status of a District Council with effect from 29th April,1972 under the Mizoram District Council’s(Miscellaneous Provisions)Order,1972.The Pawi District Council was renamed as the Lai Autonomous District Council from 1st May,1989 under notification issued by the Governor of Mizoram in May 1989.

Subject to the provisions of the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution, the administration of an autonomous district vests in both LADC & CADC. Both the District Councils is headed by a Chief Executive Member who is assisted by such number of Executive members as are prescribed under the Rules. The legislative Wing of the District Councils is headed by a Chairman who is assisted by a Deputy Chairman. The judiciary in the District Councils is headed by the court President .The District Council courts have three member with the President at its head and two other judicial officers as members.

The Sixth Schedule to the Constitution of India provides for administration of specified Tribal areas. For that purpose, it provides for the Constitution of District Councils for both the Lai Autonomous District Council (LADC) and Chakma Autonomous District Council (CADC) with powers to make laws on matters listed in paragraph 3(1) of the Sixth Schedule which are mentioned below:

  • Allotment, occupation or use or setting apart of land other than any land in any reserved forest, for the purposes of agriculture or grazing or for residential or other non-agricultural purposes or for any other purpose likely to promote the interests of any village or town ,and to make laws in this regard;

  • Management of forests other than reserve forests and to make laws for the purpose;

  • Use of any canal or water-course for the purpose of agriculture ,and to make laws for the purpose;

  • Regulation of the practice of jhum or other forms of shifting cultivation ,and to make laws for the purpose;

  • Establishment of village or town committees or councils and to regulate any other matter relating to village or town administration, and to make laws for the purpose;

  • Village or town police, and to make laws for the purpose;

  • public health and sanitation

  • regulation, by laws, of Inheritance of property, marriage and divorce, and social customs;

  • Constitution of Village Councils or courts for trial of suits and cases between parties all of whom belong to Scheduled Tribes; and to make laws for the purpose;

Under paragraphs 6(1) and 8 of the Sixth Schedule, the councils have powers on the following matters

  • Establishment, construction or management of primary schools, dispensaries, markets, cattle pounds, ferries, fisheries, roads, road transport and waterways ,and to make laws for the regulation and control thereof;

  • Assessment and collection of land-revenue and to make laws for the purpose;

  • levying and collection of taxes on land and buildings, tolls on persons resident within the autonomous district; and to make laws for the purpose;

  • levying and collection of taxes on professions, trades, callings and employment; on animals vehicles and boats; on the entry of goods and tolls on passengers and goods carried in ferries ;for maintenance of schools, dispensaries or roads; and to make laws for the purpose; and

  • Regulation and control of money-lending or trading by persons resident in the autonomous district, and to make laws for the purpose.

In addition to the above-mentioned powers and functions of the district councils as envisaged in the Sixth Schedule, in 1986 vide Government notification No.DCA/E-212/83/52 dt.20.8.1986 which was modified in 1993 vide Government Notification No.B.17012/3/92-DCA Dated 22.9.1993, the State Government of Mizoram, with a view to having effective and active participation of the local people in various departmental activities ,decided to entrust a large numbers of functions of the state Government to the District Councils for execution, under the provision of sub-paragraph (2) and 6(1) of the sixth schedule .These functions are given below:

1. AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE DEPARTMENT:

  1. Agriculture Link Road.

  2. Distribution of Planting materials/certified seeds.

  3. Procurement of Machineries for 50 % subsidy.

  4. Implements and Tools.

  5. Water Pumping Machineries.

  6. Land Development by manuals.

  7. Minor Irrigation Construction of field channels.FISHERIES DEPARTMENT:

  8. Grant-in –aid to individual Fish Farmers for fish pond development.

2. PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT:

  1. Rural Sanitation.

  2. Spring Source Development

  3. Public Latrines/Urinal (Rural sanitation)

3. INDUSTRY DEPARTMENT:

  1. Handloom and Handicraft.

  2. Grant-in-aid to individuals for supply of tools and implements.

  3. Selection of SEEYOU Loanees.

4. SERICULTURE DEPARTMENT:

  1. Grant-in-aid to Private Rearers under Promotion Scheme.

  2. Marketing-selling of cocoon to State Government.

5. A.H. & VETY DEPARTMENT:

  1. Subsidy scheme on

  2. Cattle development

  3. Piggery and

  4. Poultry

  5. Dispensary.

6. ARTS & CULTURE DEPARTMENT:

  1. Grant-in-aid to promotion of Arts and Culture.

  2. District Library.

  3. District Museum.

  4. Assistance for publication.

7. SOCIAL WELFARE DEPARTMENT:

  1. Old Age Pension (Plan & Non-Plan)

  2. Assistance to Voluntary Organization.

  3. Pre Schools.

  4. Welfare of Handicap.

  5. Welfare of Poor and Destitute

8. SOIL CONSERVATION DEPARTMENT:

  1. Implementation of Terracing.

  2. Plantation Subsidy Schemes.

  3. Village grassing ground.

9. LOCAL ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT:

  1. Urban Development.

  2. All Minor Works of the Department such as construction of the steps/

  3. Culverts/retaining wall etc.

10. FOREST DEPARTMENT:

  1. All the Projects taken by Forest Department within Council areas can be handed over to the District Council concerned including all the assets and liabilities, if any.

  2. National at Phawngpui and Sanctuary at Ngengpui under centrally sponsored schemes will be looked after by the Forest Department, Government of Mizoram.

11. TRANSPORT DEPARTMENT:

  1. It is agreed that separate Transport Department may be created by each District Council wef. 1994-95 Financial Year. It is further decided that Transport Department of Mizoram may set aside the Cost of One Bus for each District Council including maintenance charges.

  2. It is also agreed and decided that the Government of Mizoram should try to obtain the procedure followed by the District Council of Assam etc.
    Regarding the collection of Road Tax, Goods, and Passenger Tax, etc.

13. SPORTS & YOUTH SERVICES DEPARTMENT :
It is agreed that the Council may create Sports and Youth Services Department and requirement of fund for the purpose may be provided within their budget. Sport & Youth Services Department will provide requiring Fund.
 
 
14. CO-OPERATION DEPARTMENT:
It is agreed that the Council may create co-operative Department as one of the Department but technical subjects will be considered later.
 
 
15. PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT:
Creation/opening of District Council Public Works Department is agreed. The District Councils will, however, have to strengthen their technical hands to cope with the works in accordance with PWD norms. The following works will be entrusted to the Councils.
1) Inter- Village approach Road to link up with the PWD roads.
2) Maintenance and improvement of satellite towns and villages roads.
 
16. EDUCATION DEPARTMENT:

  1. PRIMARY SCHOOL: As for Primary School, it is decided that from 1994-1995 onwards, the budget provision will be reflected in District Council budget and education Department will no longer include the same in the State budget.

  2. Adult Education will be handed over to District Council.

  3. MIDDLE SCHOOL: Handing over of Middle School to District Council is agreed. However, Examination will be continued under the examination Board of the State.

17. RURAL DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT:

  1. Rural Communications.

  2. Construction of Community Hall.

  3. Rural Housing.

18. RELIEF & REHABILITATION DEPARTMENT:

It is agreed that Rs. 1 lakh each be provided by the respective Council for 1994-95 under Non-Plan. It is further agreed that Finance Department should set aside fund for this purpose.
 
19. DRDA & ICDS:

Regarding the handing over of DRDA (including CD Block) and ICDS, the Hon’ble Minister i/c District Council Affairs Department informed that the Government would seek clarification/permission from Central Government whether these two Agencies can be handed over to District Councils since they are Centrally Sponsored Programmes.
 
20. WATER WAYS (INLAND WATER TRANSPORT):

The need to have separate allocation of fund under water ways (inland water transport) for the three District Councils is considered really important by the Committee. The District Council Headquarters are often inaccessible during rainy season. The only way foodstuff and other essential commodities can be sent to the District Council Headquarters is through water Way Transport. Since there is no budget provision under State Budget, the District Council may provide budget provision for this also from 1994-95. Government of Mizoram may provide separate fund for this to the three District Councils.
 
However it may be pointed out that till today, both the District Councils lack skilled manpower, technical expertise, technology and Information Technology savvy personnel to successfully implement much of the above subjects and most of the works under the above subjects except primary education and sports, are still under the implemented by the Office of the Deputy Commissioner, District Rural Development Agency (DRDA),Block Development Offices and line departments of the State Government of Mizoram.

3.1.6 (B) Structure of the District Administration:
The district administration is at the hands of the office of the Deputy Commissioner and various developmental programmes are implemented mainly by the office of the Deputy Commissioner, DRDA and actively assisted by BDOs. The office of the Deputy Commissioner is headed by the Deputy Commissioner and he is assisted by Additional Deputy Commissioner, Sub Divisional Officer (sadr), two Assistant to Deputy Commissioner and one Sub Divisional Magistrate. Judiciary is at the hands of Deputy Commissioner, Sub-Divisional Officer (sadr) and Sub-Divisional magistrate. All cases civil and criminal are within their purview except some cases of customary in nature are within the purview of the District Council Courts.
The district is divided into two rural development blocks for efficient implementation and monitoring of various developmental programmes of both the Central and the State Governments. The following offices are functioning within both the R.D blocks


Chawngte Block: This R.D block constitutes a part of Lawngtlai District. Its headquarter is at Chawngte. Within the block, the following offices have been established:

  1. Sub-Divisional Office (Civil).

  2. Block Development Office.

  3. Range Office (Forest).

  4. Soil Office.

  5. Sub Divisional Office (PWD).

  6. Sub Divisional Office (PHE).

  7. Sub Divisional Office (Power & Electricity)

  8. Sub Divisional Police Office.

Lawngtlai Block: This block also constitutes a part of Lawngtlai District. Lawngtlai town is both the district and block headquarter. The following offices have been established:

  1. Office of the Deputy Commissioner.

  2. District Rural Development Agency

  3. Block Development Office.

  4. Office of the Superintendent of Police.

  5. District Civil Supply Office.

  6. Office of the Executive Engineer (PHE).

  7. Office of the Executive Engineer (PWD).

  8. Office of the Sub Divisional (P&E).

  9. Chief Medical Office.

  10. Sub Divisional Agriculture Office.

  11. Sub Divisional Vety Office.

  12. District Horticulture Office.

  13. District Education Office.


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